The Suliban Cabal was an interstellar terrorist organization active in the 22nd century. The Cabal took their orders from a mysterious figure who was humanoid and communicated from the 28th century. As a representative of a faction in the Temporal Cold War, this individual used the Cabal as his foot soldiers in his attempts to alter history towards his own ends. He communicated his orders directly to Silik, the Cabal's leader.
As payment for their services, the Cabal's benefactor provided members of the organization with the technical expertise to perform a number of genetic enhancements on themselves, including the ability to shapeshift, enhanced senses, and the ability to survive in extreme environments. He also provided them with advanced technology, including biomimetic garments and cloaking devices. The Cabal was in possession of many advanced spacecraft, including cell ships, stealth cruisers, and immense space stations known as "helixes," which were aggregate structures comprised of many different vessels held in place by magnetic seals. (ENT: "Broken Bow", "Cold Front", "Shockwave")
Some members of the Cabal grew disenchanted with their efforts, and left to form a resistance movement. Suliban such as Sarin engaged in operations designed to disrupt the Cabal's efforts. (ENT: "Broken Bow")
In 2144, the Cabal began carrying out attacks on the Tandarans, a species from a neighboring territory. This led to the creation of detention camps, where the Tandarans would inter the Suliban in their sector, even those who were not members of the Cabal. (ENT: "Detained")
In the 2150s, the Cabal began staging attacks within the Klingon Empire, making it appear as if one faction was attacking another, in an attempt to start a civil war. Their plot was uncovered in 2151 when Sarin, a former member of the Cabal, provided the Klingon courier Klaang with relevant information. The crew of the Enterprise NX-01 eventually transported Klaang back to Qo'noS, but not before coming into conflict with the Cabal on Rigel X and onboard a Helix in the atmosphere of a gas giant. (ENT: "Broken Bow")
The next year, the Cabal attempted to frame Enterprise for the destruction of the Paraagan II mining colony, in an attempt to sabotage their mission. The Enterprise crew was eventually able to prove their innocence with the help of Daniels, a temporal agent from the 31st century.
Later that year, the Cabal attempted to capture an Earth vessel from the 31st century which Enterprise had discovered adrift in space. Suliban vessels engaged in combat with Tholian starships, the Tholians also having an interest in the Cold War. The Earth vessel was ultimately retrieved by those who sent it when Commander Tucker managed to activate a temporal beacon found inside the ship. (ENT: "Future Tense")
In 2153, after Earth suffered a devastating attack which resulted in the deaths of seven million people, the Cabal abducted Captain Archer from Enterprise and delivered him to a temporal communications chamber. There, the Cabal's benefactor provided Archer with intelligence that the Xindi were behind the attack, and that they were working for another faction in the Temporal Cold War. This gave Starfleet the information it needed to mount a mission to stop the Xindi from destroying Earth. (ENT: "The Expanse")
One year later, Silik was assigned to stowaway on Enterprise, when his master learned that Daniels would be sending the ship back in time to 1944 to stop the Na'kuhl, another Cold War faction, from constructing a temporal conduit. Wanting the ability to physically travel through time rather than just communicate through it, the Cabal's benefactor ordered Silik to steal the conduit's specifications and deliver them back to him. Silik was discovered, however, and eventually teamed up with Captain Archer in order to stop the Na'kuhl. They were eventually successful in destroying the conduit before the Na'kuhl had a chance to use it, but Silik was shot to death in the process. With the destruction of the conduit and the defeat of the Na'kuhl, the Temporal Cold War came to an end. (ENT: "Storm Front", "Storm Front, Part II")