The Time of Awakening was a period in Vulcan history when the violent and warlike Vulcan race switched to more peaceful ways. It occurred sometime during the 4th century of the Earth calendar, although some Vulcans had already begun to mentally train themselves to suppress their emotions ca. 3000 years earlier. (VOY: "Random Thoughts")
The change was brought on by a Vulcan named Surak, who preached a philosophy of using logic to control emotions, as well as total pacifism. He was effective in spreading his teaching across Vulcan, though he encountered heavy resistance from many Vulcans, especially "those who marched beneath the raptor's wings". A war ensued, and Vulcan was about to "tear itself apart" using weapons like atomic bombs and the Stone of Gol. In the end, the war came to a conclusion and a sizable group of Vulcans eventually left the planet, becoming the ancestors of the Debrune and the Romulans.
Despite Surak's death due to radiation sickness at Mount Seleya shortly before the last battle against "those who marched beneath the raptor's wings", both his katra as well as his writings were preserved in a katric arc and a device called Kir'Shara, respectively. Although both became lost and would not be rediscovered until the mid-22nd century, Vulcan society rose from the ashes by embracing logic and began to rebuild its civilization - a process which took almost 1,500 years.
There are several novels that deal with the Time of Awakening, though revelations in Star Trek: Enterprise's Vulcan Reformation trilogy have rendered them somewhat inconsistent with the Star Trek canon. These include:
- The Romulan Way (Rihannsu #2) by Diane Duane and Peter Morwood
- In this novel the Romulans refer to the Time of Awakening as "The Sundering"
- Spock's World by Diane Duane
- Vulcan's Soul trilogy by Josepha Sherman and Susan Shwartz
- The Yesterday Saga Books #3-5 by A.C. Crispin (canceled)