New Vulcan was an alternate reality Vulcan colony founded by the original universe version of Spock as a home for the estimated 10,000 survivors of the destruction of Vulcan, perpetrated by Nero in 2258.
That universe's Spock thought that, logically, he should resign his commission in Starfleet to help restore Vulcan civilization, but his "older self" urged him to stay so as not to be denied the potential accomplishments made with the friendships to the crew of the USS Enterprise, specifically James T. Kirk. (Star Trek)
Within a year, New Vulcan had become the capital of the Confederacy of Surak. In 2259, the Enterprise contacted this planet where Spock revealed the true nature of Khan Noonien Singh to the crew. (Star Trek Into Darkness)